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Malaria situation in Andhra Pradesh


Malaria Manual developed by IHS is for sale. Details can be had from ihs@ihs.org.in

   

Malaria is caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Plasmodium . It is spread only by Anopheline mosquitoes. Across the globe, approximately 300 million people are affected by Malaria and 1-1.5 million deaths annually are attributed to the disease.
Malaria is the most prominent and problematic of all vector borne communicable diseases of Andhra Pradesh. Three paradigms of malaria are observed in the state i.e., Tribal, Rural and Urban. Many Programmes were implemented for the control of malaria. Currently, the National Anti Malaria Programme is in vogue. This fact sheet presents the current data of Malaria situation in Andhra Pradesh.

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The figure-1 shows the trend of combined incidence of both vivax malaria (API) and falciparum malaria (AFI) cases in the state. During the 1970s, malaria incidence in the state had increased by leaps and bounds. There after, since the 1980 malaria has been largely under control. Recently there is a gradual increase in incidence of malaria. Recent increase in incidence appears to have been contributed increases of both vivax and falciparum malaria.
Figure-1: Incidence trend of all forms of malaria and falciparum malaria in AP, 1961-2000

Source: Directorate of Health - Malaria Programme Office, Andhra Pradesh.
Figure-2 shows District wise malaria incidence based on a District wise analysis of malaria incidence based on a cumulative blood smear data from 1991-2000 which helps us to identify malaria endemic districts. Incidence of malaria has been very high in Vishakhapatnam district. Other malarious districts are Adilabad, Khammam, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari, Krishna districts. Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari, Cuddapah, Anantapur, Kurnool, and Khammam districts experienced significant increase in malaria incidence during the second half of the 1990s (1996-200) over the first half (1991-95) incidence. Deaths due to malaria has been mostly observed in Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Adilabad, Krishna, Chittoor, and Khammam districts. Districts like Medak, Nalgonda, Mahboobnagar, Chittoor, and Nellore appear to have been largely free of malaria. The case fatality rate appears to be high in Chittoor district giving rise to some deaths due to malaria, despite a generally low level of incidence.

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Figure-2: District wise malaria situation in AP during 1991-2000

  

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The Table-1 shows District wise malaria incidence (API) from 1991-2000 in AP. The data shows that the incidence of malaria is high in the second half of the decade (1996-2000) over the first half (1991-95).
Table-1: AP district wise malaria incidence, 1991-2000
District 1991-2000 1991-95 1996-2000
Vishakhapatnam 8.41 8.46 8.35
Krishna 4.23 3.28 5.18
Adilabad 2.87 2.72 3.01
Khammam 2.46 2.06 2.86
E-Godavari 2.43 1.18 3.67
Srikakulam 2.22 1.97 2.46
Kurnool 1.93 1.16 2.70
Cuddapah 1.55 0.89 2.22
Vizianagaram 1.54 1.12 1.96
All AP 1.51 1.28 1.75
Anantapur 1.22 0.95 1.48
Guntur 0.95 1.13 0.76
Hyderabad 0.62 0.79 0.45
Prakasam 0.54 0.53 0.55
Warangal 0.52 0.41 0.62
Karimnagar 0.37 0.35 0.39
Nizamabad 0.37 0.65 0.09
Rangareddy 0.30 0.12 0.47
W-Godavari 0.20 0.21 0.19
Nellore 0.19 0.06 0.32
Mahboobnagar 0.13 0.12 0.14
Chittoor 0.08 0.04 0.11
Medak 0.03 0.03 0.03
Nalgonda 0.02 0.02 0.02

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Table-1: AP district wise malaria incidence, 1991-2000

District 1991-2000 1991-95 1996-2000
Vishakhapatnam 8.41 8.46 8.35
Krishna 4.23 3.28 5.18
Adilabad 2.87 2.72 3.01
Khammam 2.46 2.06 2.86
E-Godavari 2.43 1.18 3.67
Srikakulam 2.22 1.97 2.46
Kurnool 1.93 1.16 2.70
Cuddapah 1.55 0.89 2.22
Vizianagaram 1.54 1.12 1.96
All AP 1.51 1.28 1.75
Anantapur 1.22 0.95 1.48
Guntur 0.95 1.13 0.76
Hyderabad 0.62 0.79 0.45
Prakasam 0.54 0.53 0.55
Warangal 0.52 0.41 0.62
Karimnagar 0.37 0.35 0.39
Nizamabad 0.37 0.65 0.09
Rangareddy 0.30 0.12 0.47
W-Godavari 0.20 0.21 0.19
Nellore 0.19 0.06 0.32
Mahboobnagar 0.13 0.12 0.14
Chittoor 0.08 0.04 0.11
Medak 0.03 0.03 0.03
Nalgonda 0.02 0.02 0.02

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Updated by Dhanaraj & Dr. Saikumar 

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